Physical Realization of Elastic Cloaking with a Polar Material
An elastic cloak is a coating material that can be applied to an arbitrary inclusion to make it indistinguishable from the background medium. Cloaking against elastic disturbances, in particular, has been demonstrated using several designs and gauges. None, however, tolerate the coexistence of normal and shear stresses due to a shortage of physical realization of transformation-invariant elastic materials. Here, we overcome this limitation to design and fabricate a new class of polar materials with a distribution of body torque that exhibits asymmetric stresses. A static cloak for full two-dimensional elasticity is thus constructed based on the transformation method. The proposed cloak is made of a functionally graded multilayered lattice embedded in an isotropic continuum background. While one layer is tailored to produce a target elastic behavior, the other layers impose a set of kinematic constraints equivalent to a distribution of body torque that breaks the stress symmetry. Experimental testing under static compressive and shear loads demonstrates encouraging cloaking performance in good agreement with our theoretical prediction. The work sets a precedent in the field of transformation elasticity and should find applications in mechanical stress shielding and stealth technologies.